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What the above shows is that elevation angles up to about 15 degrees give E hops, elevation angles between about 16 and 20 degrees can give ducting in the electron density valley above the E region peak in the nighttime ionosphere and elevation angles above 20 degrees give F hops. Of course these values may vary depending on where you are in the world and on geomagnetic field conditions.

ARRL Centennial K9LA - 160m Mastering the Challenge

Arrival Direction of FT5ZM in NA on 160m - Rev C

160m Ducting and Spotlight Propagation_revA

An Introduction to Operating on 160m

Predicting 160m Propagation

Absorption at Night

Poldhu to PEI on 160m

Possible Precursor to Good 160m Propagation

160m At Solar Maximum

160m Skewed Path

An Investigation of Antipodal Focusing on 160m

Trying to Work ST0RY on 160m

Working A61AJ on 160m


NM7M The Big Gun's Guide to Low-Band Propagation     This is a 15 Megabyte file. Thanks to Jan PA0SIM for scanning it.


The following are short discussions of very specific 160m issues

Ducting on 160-Meters

Polarization Observations on 160-Meters

Multi-Hop at Night on 160-Meters

Low Angles on 160-Meters

Another Simple 160m Antenna

K9LA 160m and 80m Antenna


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